The rise and fall of geometry in schools in iran during the years 1925-2016

Saeid Kamalvandian, Monireh Paimann


The formal education of geometry in Iran dates back to 1927 and the establishment of the Dar ul-Funun school. At that time, due to the presence of French instructors, the compilation of mathematical books was influenced by educational programs in France. Euclidean geometry was developed based on the Euclid's axioms, and was placed in the curriculum from the first year. In 1938, a more innovative and reformist program was adopted in which geometry of cones, digital geometry anddescriptive geometry were included. In 1971, a great transformation took place in the compilation of mathematical textbooks, which arose from the emergence of a group of French mathematicians known as Bourbaki. This group, which was strongly opposed to Euclidean geometry in its classical way, led to the introduction of mathematical concepts to students in a more abstract manner and without preparation for meaningful understanding. Under the influence of this group, descriptive and digital geometries were removed from the curriculum, but traditional geometry remained. By the year 1992, the volume of books and their teaching hours were reduced, but since 1993, this decline has been more severe. Now all the countries of the world have realized the importance of geometry in fostering students' thinking and creativity for its use in new physics theories, including superstrings, and they consider it as the best setting to publicize mathematics in the society. Using dynamic software, they have made the teaching of geometry for students more productive and more enjoyable. There have also been some positive developments in our country. However, the training of specialized teachers in geometry should also be considered in order to improve the quality of teaching geometry.


Geometry textbooks, Transformation of mathematics curriculum, Dynamic software, specialized teachers in geometry

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