Cross Border Shopping: Analysis of Demographic Characteristics

Chai-Lee Goi


This paper is to study the demographic pattern of Bruneians on cross border shopping, especially visiting Miri, Sarawak. 9 variables of demographic were used in this study. The variables used include age, gender, marital status, ethnicity, religion, education, monthly income, occupation, field of occupation. Another two questions involved in this research are related to the amount of money spent on shopping and the type of items that have been purchased. These two questions are analysed by using cross-tabulation of 4 major demographics, gender, age, income and education level. Overall, demographic factor plays a role in cross border spending.


Cross Border Shopping, Demographic

Full Text:



P.M. Sullivan, and J. Kang, “Information sources and motivational attributes of Canadian cross-border shoppers: a pilot study,” International Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 7, pp. 88–107, 1997.

J.W. Mogab, M.J. Pisani, K.M. Nicols, S. Welkey, and B.E. Wuest, “Manifiesto: The texas sales tax rebate and cross-border Mexican shoppers,” Texas Business Review, pp. 1–5, October 2005.

T. Dmitrovic, and I. Vida, “An examination of cross-border shopping in South East Europe,” European Journal of Marketing, vol. 41, pp. 382–395, 2007.

P. Sullivan, M.A. Bonn, V. Bhardwaj, and A. DuPont, “Mexican national cross-border shopping: Exploration of retail tourism,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 19, pp. 596–604, November 2012.

A. Correia, and M. Kozak, “Tourists’ shopping experiences at street markets: Cross-country research,” Tourism Management, vol. 56, pp. 85–95, October 2016.

D. Wang, “Hong Kongers’ cross-border consumption and shopping in Shenzhen: patterns and motivations,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 11, pp. 149–159, May 2004.

Statista, Global travel and tourism industry – Statistics & facts., 2017.

A. Othman, “Malaysia records 1.4M visits from Brunei in 2016”, Borneo Bulletin. March 18, 2017.

Borneo Bulletin, If you love Brunei, do more shopping here, not cross border. January 14, 2017.

Free Malaysia Today News, Revenue for shopping tourism rises by 17.1%. November 6, 2016.

J. Bahar, Is Malaysia’s local market saturated. Kuala Lumpur: Spire Research and Consulting Sdn. Bhd., 2014.

H. Li, C. Kuo, and M.G. Rusell, “The impact of perceived channel utilities, shopping orientations, and demographics on the consumer’s online buying behavior,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, vol. 5, December 1999.

J.M. Martins, and G. Brooks, “Teaching consumer demographics to marketing students,” Population Research and Policy Review, vol. 29, pp. 81–92, February 2010.

D.C. Hambrick, and P.A. Mason, “Upper echelons: The organization as a reflection of its top managers,” The Academy of Management Review, vol. 9, pp. 193–206, April 1984.

Li, M., and L.A. Cai, “Souvenir shopping attitudes and behavior among Chinese domestic tourists: An exploratory study,” Journal of China Tourism Research, vol. 4, pp. 189–204, 2008.

H. Yu, and M.A. Littrell, “Product and process orientations to tourism shopping,” Journal of Travel Research, vol. 42, pp. 140–150, 2003.

U. Kattiyapornpong, and K.E. Miller, “Propensity to shop: Identifying who shops til they drop,” Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, vol. 29, pp. 552–565, 2012.

L.G. Pol, “Demographic contributions to marketing: An assessment,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 19, pp. 53–59, 1991.

P.M. Sullivan, J. Kang, “Information sources and motivational attributes of Canadian cross-border shoppers: A pilot study,” International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 7, pp.88–107, 1997.

C. Tosun, S.P. Temizkan, D.J. Timothy, and A. Fyall, “Tourist shopping experiences and satisfaction,” International Journal of Tourism Research, vol. 9, pp. 87–102, March/April 2007.

T. Dmitrovic, and I. Vida, “An examination of cross‐border shopping behaviour in South‐East Europe", European Journal of Marketing, vol. 41, pp.382-395, 2007.

T.K. Hui, and H.F. Lau, “The Behavior of Hong Kong cross-border shoppers: a Nonparametric approach”, in J.S. Chen (ed.), Advances in Hospitality and Leisure (Advances in Hospitality and Leisure, vol.), Emerald UK: Group Publishing Limited, pp. 89–108, 2011.

J. Yuan, D.C. Fowler, B.K. Goh, and M.K. Lauderdale, “Mexican cross-border shoppers’ motivations to the USA,” International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 7, pp.394–410, 2013.

A. Lo, and H. Qu, “A theoretical model of the impact of a bundle of determinants on tourists’ visiting and shopping intentions: A case of mainland Chinese tourists”, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, vol. 22, pp. 231–243, January 2015.

T. Albayrak, M. Caber, and N. Çömen, “Tourist shopping: The relationships among shopping attributes, shopping value, and behavioral intention”, Tourism Management Perspectives, vol. 18, pp. 98–106, April 2016.

H.F. Lau, L.Y.M. Sin, and K.K.C. Chan, “Chinese cross-border shopping: An empirical study,” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, vol. 29, pp. 110-133, 2005.

J.R. Thompson, “Characteristics and behaviors of out-shopper consumers,” Journal of Retailing, vol. 47, pp. 70–80, 1970.

F.D. Reynolds, and W. Darden, “Intermarket patronage: a psychographic study of consumer out-shopping,” Journal of Marketing, vol. 36, pp. 50–54. 1972.

N.G. Papadopoulos, “Consumer out-shopping research: review and extension,” Journal of Retailing, vol. 56, pp. 41–58, Winter 1980.

J.R. Lumpkin, J.M. Hawes, and W.R. Darden, “Shopping patterns of the rural consumer: exploring the relationship between shopping orientations and out-shopping,” Journal of Business Research, vol. 14, pp. 63–81, 1986.

F. Piron, “International out-shopping and ethnocentrism,” European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36, pp. 189–210, 2002.

P.M. Sullivan, and J. Kang, “A comparison of cross-border shopping motivations: Canadian cross-border shoppers and US cross-border shoppers”, Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Research in the Distributive Trades, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, 26–28 August 1999.

The Borneo Post, Miri still a shopping paradise for Bruneians. March 19, 2012.

B. Thompson, “Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis: Understanding concepts and applications”, Washington DC: American Psychological Association, 2004.

Pitney Bowes, "The continuing rise of cross-border ecommerce", 2016.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Revista Publicando.

Licencia de Creative Commons


This Content is available under licencia de Creative Commons Reconocimiento-NoComercial-CompartirIgual 4.0 Internacional.